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differentiate between normative conformity and informational conformity

Posted by on 2021-01-07

Bearden, William O. and Randall L. Rose (1990), "Attention to Social Comparison Information: An Individual Difference Factor Affecting Consumer Conformity," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (March), 461-471. Another limitation of this survey is the dependence upon respondents’ ability and willingness accurately to report their objectives in soliciting information. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Hypothesis 6 addressed the strength of the consumer-referent relationship from the perspective of frequency of contact (H56a) and incidence of prior advice solicitation (H6b). We may obey the speed limit or wear a uniform to our job (behavior) to conform to social norms and requirements, even though we may not necessarily believe that it is appropriate to do so (opinion). Difference Between Conformity And Non Conformity. Alternatively, there is no reason to expect any consistent or systematic social/demographic similarity among consumers and those referents sought out because of their superior knowledge, experience or expertise. Kelman, Herbert C. (1961), "Processes of Opinion Change," Public Opinion Quarterly, 25 (Spring), 57-78. Greater regularity of providing purchase-relevant advice. Coded in this fashion, the data contained 12 instances of normative social influence, 42 of informational, and 20 characterized by both influence types. The examination of consumer-referent relationships extends and to some extent clarifies earlier research on strong and weak ties as they relate to social influence (Brown and Reingen 1987). We may use drugs with our friends without really wanting to, and without believing it is really right, because our friends are all using drugs. To the extent that the evening MBA students participating in this study differed systematically in their choice of or opportunity for social contacts across a broader cross-section of society, results may be distorted. Situations involving both normative and informational social influence were characterized by a mean involvement level comparable to that of the informational group and significantly higher than the normative (5.65). The informational-normative distinction has been an explicit focus of a few studies in the last decade. In their first experiment, students worked on a task with another student, who was actually an experimental confederate. Brown and Reingen (1987) found that "strong ties," defined in part as those characterized by high contact frequency, are more likely than weak ties to serve as a conduit for the transfer of purchase-relevant information. The wide variation in product categories reported by respondents may be partially responsible for the low levels of variance accounted for by the independent variables. Each respondent was then asked to identify two purchase decisions, occurring within the most recent three months, in which information or advice was sought from another person or persons. Ajzen, Icek and Martin Fishbein (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. The greatest normative influence is usually exerted within primary reference groups such as the immediate family (Cooley 1962). Taylor, James W. (1974), "The Role of Risk in Consumer Behavior," Journal of Marketing, 38 (April), 54-60. unclear) situation and socially compares their behavior with the group. On the other hand, normative social influence occurs when people conform in order to be accepted and liked by the group; normative influence is moderated by group … The work of Brown and Reingen (1987), cited earlier, established that "of an individual’s potential personal sources of information, the more homophilous the tie, the more likely it is activated for the flow of referral" (p.354), but did not address the issue of potential differences between normative and informational influence. When we start smoking cigarettes or buy shoes we cannot really afford in order to impress others, we do these things not so much because we think they are the right things to do but rather because we want to be liked. When we engage in normative conformity we conform to social norms—socially accepted beliefs about what we do or should do in particular social contexts (Cialdini, 1993; Sherif, 1936; Sumner, 1906). The latter would seem to be the situation Brown and Reingen’s respondents faced as they decided upon a piano teacher. The contribution of this research lies not in the demonstration that the variables measured and analyzed herein relate to social influence, but in isolating the type of social influence activity most likely associated with them. Rebecca Ratner, University of Maryland, USA. Alternatively, a heterophilous tie is one in which the two individuals manifest substantial differences on such relevant dimensions. Analyses of reported differences between the two parties with respect to the demographic and psychographic variables identified in the earlier description of the measurement instrument yielded only one significant difference in means or proportions between social influence categories (F2,71 = 3.06, p < .05, h2 = .08). 3. Marketers adopting such common strategies as the targeting of opinion leaders and promotions to reference groups may enhance the efficiency of such efforts by designing the communication elements of such a strategy around the informational or normative (or combined) motivations that prevail in their target markets. Consistent with the expected difference in the frequency of prior contact between normative and informational referents, one might expect influencers accessed for normative purposes to play a referent role in more purchase situations than informational sources. Tell of a situation in which you experienced either informational influence or normative influence, but tell which one it was. Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. While extant literature establishes the existence and some characteristics of normative and informational social influence, more research is needed. The six hypotheses are summarized in Table 1. As nouns the difference between conformance and conformity is that conformance is the act of conforming; conformity while conformity is state of things being similar, or identical. While this effort represents an initial step in the examination of the characteristics of normative and social influence, much work remains to be done in this under-researched area. It is important when consumers feel the need to make informed choices. Normative conformity occurs because of the desire to be liked and accepted. While they were working together, the confederate engaged in some unusual behaviors to see if the research participant would mimic them. Or when a person is in an ambiguous (i.e. Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne (1985), "Measuring the Involvement Construct," Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (December), 341-352. Complexity, like involvement, is thus expected to relate positively to informational, but not to normative, social influence. The first hypothesis related to consumers’ involvement in the product or service involved in the decision. With respect to the hypothesis that consumer-referent relationships are characterized by homophily in normative influence situations and heterophily in informational (H5), little support emerged. Since, however, the major effect of such a bias would presumably be to mask actual differences between social influence categories because of constrained variance, it seems unlikely that such a bias could provide a plausible alternative explanation for the significant results obtained in support of the other hypotheses. Looking at various experiments performed by Solomon Asch, Stanley Milgram, and Philip Zimbardo, this paper 's purpose is to identify the numerous ways in which people influence others, and how that changes their behaviour and actions, as well as the differences between them. As you can see in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\), the participants who had been mimicked liked the other person more and indicated that they thought the interaction had gone more smoothly, in comparison with the participants who had not been imitated. Respondents completed the ATSCI scale (Cronbach a reliability coefficient .90). This type of conformity usually involves internalization – where a person accepts t… Conspicuousness, contact and advice solicitation frequency, and consumer-referent homophily with respect to the value attached to warm relationships were greater when normative influence was involved. Conformity - Conformity - Normative influence: In addition to wanting to hold correct beliefs about the world, people are motivated to be accepted by other group members. The normative-informational distinction may account for these contrasting findings. Brown and Reingen (1987) demonstrated that strong primary ties (e.g., close friends) are more likely than weak secondary ties (e.g., seldom-contacted acquaintances) to provide a conduit for social influence, and showed a positive relationship between homophily ("the degree to which pairs of individuals are similar in terms of certain characteristics, such as age, sex, education, and social status," p.354) and social tie activation. 3. The pattern of results emerging from these tests is thus consistent with H6. Levels of involvement and complexity were shown to be greater in informational influence situations than in normative. Conformity is driven by informational and normative influences. A popular conceptualization of reference group influence views that form of social influence as being most pervasive for "public" as opposed to "private" goods (Bearden and Etzel 1982), but does not differentiate between informational and normative influence. A homophilous tie is one in which the consumer and the referent possess shared characteristics with respect to values, lifestyles, demographics, etc. Social Conformity Imagine you’ve volunteered for a study. Peer pressure is a classic example of normative conformity. Levels of involvement and complexity were shown to be greater in informational influence situations than in normative. Burnkrant, Robert E. and Alain Cousineau (1975), "Informational and Normative Social Influence in Buyer Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (December), 206-215. Another issue warranting investigation is the extent to which the two types of social influence differ in the propensity for a particular referent’s influence to be exerted for a single product or service, related products only, or across product categories (monomorphism versus polymorphism). ", Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, 2001     Pages 280-285, DIFFERENCES IN NORMATIVE AND INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE, Myung-Soo Lee, City University of New York. Specifically, the confederate either rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot. Brinberg and Plimpton (1986) found a relationship between consumption and conspicuousness and value-expressive influence. Research is thus needed to establish the distinctive antecedents of the two types of social influence and differences between them with respect to the nature of the relationship between influence wielders and recipients. The foregoing analysis suggests that higher levels of involvement and product/servic complexity are associated with purchase decisions involving informational influence than with those involving normative, while the opposite is true of the conspicuousness of the purchase and/or consumption of the product or service. Back to top; 21.2: Informational Conformity- Conforming To Be Accurate; 21.4: Majority Influence- … For purposes of hypothesis testing, the type of influence exerted served as a blocking variable (to capture normative and informational social influence), with means for the variables addressed by the hypotheses compared across groups. On the other hand, informational social influence involves situations where an individual may choose to agree with others, especially the … In contrast, informational social influence arises from a This leads to the following prediction: H4: Consumers soliciting referent advice for normative reasons will be characterized by higher levels of attention to social comparison information than those reporting informational influence. Bearden, Netemeyer and Teel (1989) developed and validated a scale for measuring consumer susceptibility to informational and normative interpersonal influence; they found that Lennox and Wolfe’s (1984) ATSCI scale and the "motivation to comply" construct (Ajzen and Fishbein 1980) exhibited correlations with susceptibility to normative influence which were relatively strong and significantly greater than correlation coefficients associated with informational influence. The request in question can be either explicit, as in the form of a direct verbal request, or implicit, as in the form of an advertisement that promotes the qualities of a product without explicitly asking one to purchase (Cialdini & Goldstein, 2004). 4. ABSTRACT - In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. Cases, and we might therefore expect that we don ’ t tell what! The motivation behind normative conformity.01, h2 =.15 ) piano.! Uncertainty, we propose an account of how informational influences serve to acquire adequate representations of reality normative. The motivation behind normative conformity that imitation is a direct response from an individual who in... 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