Let’s take a look at a few popular drinks and how their caffeine count breaks down in milligrams, in addition to the health benefits of caffeine, potential side effects and risks, and how to lower your caffeine intake. This mineral is responsible for more than 300 enzymatic reactions in our bodies, making it essential for physiological functions like heart rhythm, nerve function, and muscle relaxation. Caffeine Sensitivity Genes: CYP1A2 gene: This gene codes for the enzyme that metabolizes, or breaks down, caffeine in the body. Since beginning the research on this blog post, I’m down to just 2 cups of coffee a day. If you are caffeine-sensitive or trying to cut back, many types of tea will perk you up — though one of the strongest cups of tea can have half the caffeine as a mega-strong 8-ounce cup of coffee from Starbucks, which clocks in at 180 mg, one of the most highly caffeinated cups out there. For example, soda is basically liquid sugar, and even diet soda containing aspartame has been linked to adverse side effects (including being potentially carcinogenic). A recent Mendelian randomization analysis reported that bitter perception was causally associated with coffee, tea and alcohol consumption.In this study, researchers conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of self-reported consumption of bitter- and sweet-tasting beverages. Another is the AHR gene, which controls when and how the CYP1A2 gene is switched on and off (2). 2, Caffeine increases levels of cortisol, the stress hormone. Your caffeine levels peak about 1-hour after consumption and then start to decrease gradually. These variants are located near two genes: CYP1A2 and AHR. Chocolate and yerba mate are both tea — “South American’s green tea,” by nickname. (R) Just make sure you are measuring an actual cup. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on coffee intake from 8 Caucasian cohorts (N=18 176) and sought replication of our top findings in a further 7929 individuals.We also performed a gene expression analysis treating different cell lines with caffeine. (R) Magnesium also has been shown to help increase energy and reduce anxiety, so it may be a good substitute for that caffeine boost some people love without some of the side effects. Researchers found eight such variants, two of which had already been linked to coffee consumption. What is the lethal dose of caffeine in humans? If you feel there are inaccuracies in any of our written work, we invite you to use the contact form on our Contact page to tell us how we could improve. I tell myself that I need to be better about switching to green tea in the afternoons, at least, but I’m not sure I can start my morning with a steaming cup of tea. The gene is thought to regulate the production of proteins that metabolize caffeine in the body, the study authors report. That can be anywhere from 200 to 400 mg. Caffeine also lurks in other things we eat, like chocolate, and in some over-the-counter medications. Some coffee mugs fit more than 8 ounces, and grabbing a venti iced coffee from a Starbucks drive-thru is going to set you pretty far back on your caffeine goals for the day. I actually use Gene Food’s Daily Magnesium supplement. Data on coffee consumption and other dietary components were collected using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire along with other caffeine-containing beverages such as tea, chocolate, and other beverages. However, it has been reported that coffee or tea consumption can reduce the risk of several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cognitive decline and specific cancers. The study identified two genes associated with the amount of caffeine people consume. This enzyme is a member Of a large family Of enzymes called cytochrome P450. (R), Caffeine also can make you need to pee, so people with overactive bladder should avoid or be cautious consuming it. 1 2, However, there is evidence that it’s not the caffeine that drives these health benefits, but the antioxidants in the tea and coffee. Gene: CYPIA2 CYPIA2 The CYPI A2 qene contains instructions for an that breaks down many substances, including caffeine. For more on that, see: VDR genotypes, caffeine and bone density. One thing I’ve found that has been working for me is taking a magnesium supplement with my breakfast. Two variants of the gene exist: the CPA1A2*1A allele results in fast caffeine metabolism, while the CPA1A2*1F allele results in slower caffeine metabolism. (R), Higher levels of caffeine intake of any kind may raise serum cholesterol and lead to heart health problems. For specific medical questions, consult your doctor. Modeling based on twin studies reveals that genetics plays a role in individual variability in caffeine consumption and in the direct effects of caffeine. How can I reduce the amount of coffee I drink? Although, high rates of caffeine consumption has also been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Significant associations of fifteen independent SNPs spanning 10 loci were replicated from stage 1 to 2 for coffee consumption. Feel free to pop back here and let us know how it’s going. Caffeine in powder or liquid form can provide toxic levels of caffeine, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has cautioned. 1. Enjoy! Coffee, tea, grapefruit juice, red wine, liquor and beer were classified as bitter beverages, while non-grapefruit juices and artificially and sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) were classified as sweet beverages. Such high levels of caffeine can cause serious health problems and possibly death. Though, like green tea, mate increases satiety and increases the breakdown of fat in our bodies, so we may be looking at healthy weight-loss goals being met just a little sooner if we choose any tea over coffee. As mentioned above, yerba mate might be a great alternative for those looking for a caffeine boost but concerned about their blood pressure. Variants in these genes may affect how quickly the body breaks down and clears away caffeine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31046077. Holiday Sale: Use coupon code HOLIDAY at checkout for $15 off DNA Diet Test Kits. In addition to caffeine, mate contains theobromine, which is predominantly found in cocoa. Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide (1), with an estimated 3 billion cups drunk daily (2). Variations in the genes that direct how the body processes caffeine mean that it leaves some people's systems quickly, while it lingers for much longer in others. Generally, the amount of caffeine consumption is … Copyright © 2021 Gene Food. CYP1A2 at 15q24 and AHR at 7p21 are attractive candidate genes for caffeine intake. Similarly, in certain VDR genotypes, caffeine consumption in women was linked to a greater risk for osteoporosis. (R). By you using this site, you agree the information contained here is for informational purposes only. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic polymorphisms have been linked to variation in response to … (R). High blood pressure may be due to mineral imbalance, Hops Supplements and the Science of Sleep. In addition to caffeine, coffee contains caffeic and cholrogenic acid, both of which are potent antioxidants. A little caffeine during pregnancy appears to be safe in most cases. Remember, a moderate amount of caffeine is OK for adults who are healthy. The amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee can vary greatly depending on the origin or the coffee and it mixture and the elaboration method. Caffeinated drinks like coffee may help to protect people from Parkinson’s disease caused by mutations in the LRRK2 gene, much as research suggests it does in preventing sporadic, or non-familial, forms of this disease, a study reported. In the study, strong environment effects (e.g. Cortisol regulates energy balance, and those who consistently drink caffeine have reduced response to the good effect of cortisol. In terms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), although randomized controlled trials demonstrate that intake of caffeine, the most prominent bioactive compound of coffee, leads to acute i… Cocoa can be an excellent source of antioxidants, and theobromine actually reduces blood pressure, whereas caffeine increases it. Could your DNA reveal your Coffee Consumption? Caffeine tolerance develops to balance the increased consumption, but th ese effect s are not influenced by the CYP1A2 gene. Try also drinking a big glass of water in the morning before your first cup of coffee. Whether genetic variants related to taste perception are associated with beverage consumption remains to be determined. Don’t just go from 9 cups a day to none. However, it is important to note that caffeine can cross the placental barrier, and therefore, can affect the fetus. For a little more technical breakdown of telomere genetics, check out the TERT gene page. We all know that caffeine before bed is a no-no, but even caffeine ingested 6 hours before sleep — those afternoon coffee pick-me-ups, for example — have been found to have significant effects on sleep, presumably because caffeine blocks adenosine receptors. (R). The association between FTO variants and coffee consumption shown in the study is supported by a recent Mendelian randomization study which reported that a BMI-increasing allele in a gene with FTO was associated with higher coffee consumption. Compared to an average cup of coffee containing 85 mg of caffeine, mate has 78 mg — topping off the mate pot, though, may lead to consuming increased amounts of caffeine pretty quickly. Generally, the amount of caffeine consumption is less than 300 mg/day, which is more or less: 3-4 cups of roasted and ground coffee; 5 cups of instant coffee; 5 cups of tea. Both of the genes are known to be involved in the breakdown of caffeine in the liver. She loves beer, her boyfriend and her adopted pup. Overall, strengths and directions of SNP-phenotype associations were similar across total bitter beverages, bitter non-alcoholic beverages and coffee, based on joint meta-analysis. Average caffeine consumption via coffee, tea, caffeinated sodas, or chocolate was recorded. We have strict editorial guidelines and only link to vetted media sites, university websites and, whenever possible, medically peer reviewed studies. The speed of this decline depends on your CYP1A2 gene, which controls an enzyme (also called CYP1A2) that is in charge of breaking down any caffeine that enters the body. Genetic variants related to coffee consumption may play a critical role in bitter or sweet beverage consumption. Wondering what in the world is a telomere? In stratified analysis, a statistical significance within the caffeinated group was observed for the change in systolic BP in the stratum of CYP1A2 polymorphism with daily caffeine consumption ≤90 mg/day: change in systolic BP in the CYP1A2 rs762551 CC group (mean ± SD = 11.8 ± 5.9) was higher than that in the AA/CA group (4.1 ± 5.5). Because of our processed-food diets today, many people are magnesium-deficient and they don’t know it. In the first GWAS of caffeine intake in a total of 47,341 individuals from five U.S. studies, loci at 15q24 and 7p21 achieved genome-wide significance. Genetics studies on twins have suggested that caffeine consumption has a highly heritable component - estimates suggest 30-50% of the variation in coffee consumption in a group of people can be explained by genetics. The health benefits and risks of coffee have long been debated, with various outcomes reported (3). For example, this study found that telomere length was actually decreased in those who regularly consumed caffeine, but increased in those who consumed coffee. Sure, Shelly! In fact, 99% of ingested caffeine is absorbed and distributed to all tissues and organs. What you’re ingesting with the caffeine matters greatly. The mechanism is unclear, but studies have associated coffee and caffeine consumption with lower levels of diabetes, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Upload raw DNA data to learn more about yourself and genomics science. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) says “for pregnant women with high daily caffeine intake (more than 300 mg per day), lowering daily caffeine intake during pregnancy is recommended to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss and low birth weight neonates.” Given the widespread consumption of various types of beverages and their substantial health implications, understanding environmental and genetic factors contributing to beverage choice and consumption levels have important nutritional and broader public health implications. Coffee consumption is a model for addictive behavior. It has been reported that taste perception and preferences are heritable and play a role in beverage choice and consumption. With an average of 100 milligrams of caffeine in each cup, it wakes up your brain and boosts your energy. Amber Krosel is a Gene Food experience writer and official taste tester. You can find all the references for this post organized at the bottom of this piece. One is on chromosome 7 near the AHR gene, and the other is on chromosome 15 near the CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes. If you’re worried about how much caffeine you’re drinking, there are ways to cut back. Shortly after drinking a cup of coffee or tea, the caffeine is distributed throughout the body (nervous system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, etc. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21432699, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182026, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3301987, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3805807/, Pass the salt? It’s an infusion of leaves made from plants that thrive in this region. But usually, coffee is the winner, here. demographic, social, occupational, cultural and others) may have masked genetic effects but replication of results from a UK population to a US populationenhances generalizability and reduces false positive results. ). Medically reviewed by Dr. Daniel Deakter, MD. While these genetic variants have been strongly associated with caffeine consumption, they are far from the whole picture. Read more about the study here: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31046077Are you interested in learning more about your genetic tendency for coffee consumption? Fast metabolizers tend to drink more caffeine than slow metabolizers. Genetics of Caffeine Consumption Several genes are involved in eliciting the different responses to caffeine among individuals. CYP1A2: How does this gene affect caffeine consumption? Further research into caffeine could categorise populations by gene-type consider the impact of caffeine consumption on various functions. How about you? Moderate caffeine intake — 400 mg per day — is generally considered safe from adverse effects such as general toxicity, cardiovascular problems, poorer bone health, and more. So, with the two crossing each other out, potentially, the benefits of mate may override other teas and coffee. 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